CHAPTER - I
“History has come to a stage when the moral man, the complete man, is more and more giving way, almost without knowing it, to make room for the commercial man, the man of limited purpose. This process aided by the wonderful progress in science, is assuming gigantic proportion and power causing the upset of man’s moral balance, obscuring his human side under the shadow of soul-less organization.”- Rabindranath Tagore, Nationalism, 1917.
Aristotle felt that the purpose of education is to create a sound mind in a sound body. Great educators in the past have explained the term “Education” as the art of “leading out” which means education is to draw out rather than to put in the whole of education. It is an intellectual,…show more content… Ancient education was monopolistic in nature as it gave specific privileges to certain communities while depriving the others to have access to education. Ancient Indian education was in the hands of Brahmins who inculcated for thousands of years a sense of spirituality and religious values. The primary aim of education was to instill into the minds of pupils a spirit of being pious and religious for the glory of God. The pursuit of knowledge was a pursuit of religious values. Terms such as knowledge, awakening, humility, modesty, etc were often used to characterize education in Vedic period. Education was regarded as the source of light and the uneducated person as an ignorant beast. The other objectives of Vedic education in ancient India were worship of God, a feeling of religion, formation of character, fulfillment of public and civic duties, and the protection and propagation of national culture. Fire sacrifices, fasting and taking vows became part of…show more content… Neo-liberalism is not really new at all. It is premised on the nineteenth-century liberal belief that unregulated markets, rather than the state or public institutions, will produce all of the social or public goods we need. This Neo-liberal ideology was grounded in the 'classical liberal tradition', which was primarily hailed by Adam Smith in his treatise, The Wealth of Nations, in 1776. For Smith, the individual should be freed from government interventions which would enhance the wealth of nations. According to Smith and the classical liberal tradition markets were the best forces to coordinate and distribute the productions and goods effectively. Neo-liberalism goes beyond classical liberalism by embracing market fundamentalism since state interference in the market mechanism contributes to poor economic performance. It results in a world dominated by unregulated markets, where “inequality and private power shape the social order,”
Classical liberalism arose along with the Enlightenment movement of the late 17th and the 18th centuries which proclaimed reason as the foundation of individual freedom. Enlightenment thinkers like John Locke (1632–1704) argued that in the ‘state of nature’, all men were free and equal, therefore possessing inalienable rights independent of the laws of any government or authority. Naturally endowed with the right to life, liberty, and property, humans could legitimately