4. Gherao. Gherao in Hindi means to surround. Workers may gherao the members of management by blocking their exits and forcing them to stay inside their cabins just like prisoners. The main object of gherao is to inflict physical and mental torture to the person being gheraoed and hence this weapon disturbs the industrial peace to a great extent. Gheraos have been criticised on both legal and moral grounds. Legally gheraos amount to imposing wrongful restraints on the freedom of some persons to move. That is why, courts have held it as an illegal action. Gheraos tend to inflict physical duress on the persons affected. They also create law and order problem. Morally, to gherao a person to press him to agree to certain demands is unjustified…show more content… Employere' Association. The employers may form their unions which may collectively oppose the working class and put pressure on the trade unions.
2. Lock-out. An employer may close down the place of employment temporarily. Such a step is technically known as lock-out. It is reverse of a strike and is a very powerful weapon in the hands of an employer to coerce or pressurises the workers to return to the place of work. According to the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947, "lock-out means the closing of a place of employment or the suspension of work, or the refusal by an employer toc ontinue to employ any number of persons employed by him."
3. Termination of Service. The employers may terminate the services of those workers who are on strike by blacklisting them. Their lists may be circulated to other employers so as to restrict their 'chances of getting employment with those employers.
• Causes of Industrial…show more content… (g) Better working conditions, etc.
2. Political Causes. Trade unions in India are controlled by various political parties. In many cases, their leadership vests in the hands of persons who are more interested in achieving their political interests rather than the interests of labourers.
3. Personnel Causes. Sometimes, industrial disputes arise because of personnel problems like dismissal, retrenchment, layoff, transfer, promotion, etc.
4. Indiscipline. Industrial disputes also take place because of indiscipline and violence on the part ofthe workforce. Lock-outs are resorted to by the managements to curb indiscipline and violence.
• Impact of Industrial Conflicts Consequences of industrial conflicts are often far-reaching as they disturb the economic, social and political life of a country. Industrial disputes create turmoil between the management and the labour and are, in fact, symptoms of poor industrial relations. An organisation being in the grip of tense industrial relations finds it impossible to introduce any innovation or effect any productivity improvement exclusively through the various industrial engineering techniques. Poor industrial relations within an organisation are not only harmful for it, but are also against the interests of the society as a whole. The adverse effects of industrial conflicts may be enumerated as