Examples Of Subjectivity In Culture

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Major Essay A borderless provides the crucible for ideals to grow. At the crux of globalisation, however, are people. Ideas sprout from the minds of thinkers and innovators. Yet as with other things, culture permeates the fabric of our lives. The ways of life inherent in civilisations and localities underlie processes of thought. Philosophy and metaphysics change in tandem with cultural progression and societal evolution. Concepts of personhood are no different, morphing to suit alternating emphasis on individual agency and their roles in society. As the perennial conduit, media disseminates these ideals. In exploring concepts of Subjectivity in culture, this paper will focus on liberal democracy (LD) and structural Marxism (SM) along with…show more content…
Ideology does not reflect the economic base as in Classical Marxism. The superstructure has relative autonomy: all matters lead back to the economic base only “in the last instance” (Althusser 1999: p. 317). Various instances coalesce and are articulated in a united front to form culture and ideology. These outcomes are products of over-determination, or various determinations; albeit the base is the eventual determinant instance, it may not necessarily be the dominant one (Smith 1984: p. 526). Furthermore, ideology is not false consciousness as argued by the Frankfurt School. Ideology is both true and false. True, because it encompasses the real conditions of people’s lives. False, because it misrecognises and misrepresents power and class relations (Barker 2012: p. 64). Ideologies consist of imaginary relations to real conditions that do not correspond to reality, yet illusions can still allude to reality if correctly interpreted (Althusser 1999: p. 317) from the bastion of critical thought promoted by scientific subject-less discourse— which includes communism since it thrown ideology overboard (Althusser 2003: p.…show more content…
Ideologies have materiality, converted from ideas into actions that are inserted into practices. Ideological State Apparatuses (ISAs) govern and regulate these practices through rituals (ibid. p. 319). They produce and reproduce capitalist ideals that serve to maintain existing relations of production. When voluntary conversion to dominant ideologies fails, Repressive State Apparatuses (RSAs) use force and coercion to control those attempting to challenge the system (O’Shaughnessy & Stadler 2002: p. 215). However, the ruling class may not be knowing conspirators in this propagation of hegemonic ideology, because they too do not exist outside of ideologies’ grasp (Althusser in ibid. p. 214). The media is a primary ISA along with the family, the education system, and the church. Althusserian theory designates all as the root of the forestalled revolution, though the prominence of each varies with the ages. Media cultivates labour of a certain moral and cultural kind (Hall 2009: p. 9) required by capitalist modes of production, i.e. labour willing and able to enter into and be subordinated by the dominant systems of exploitation. It equips the individuals comprising mass society with abilities required to take their designated place in division of labour. Media executes ideological work by masking and displacing social problems, as well as incorporating or containing ideological positions (O’Shaughnessy &

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