Geological mining has a key role in rise of early civilizations up to now. In terms of trade, production of weapons, utensils and other mechanical devices, the main material used for such production came from geological mining (introduction to mining). Acquisition of mineral ores and other raw materials from the ground are called geological mining. Mining can be underground mining which uses shafts to get the ore and materials to the surface. The surface mining that uses open pit which invades a huge land area (Oswer 2012).
The resources found in geological mining varies from natural gas to important ores or valuable stones. From sedimentation, limestone, potash, diatomite, phosphate and also gypsum and sodium carbonate are commonly found. In addition, high temperature and also pressure transforms other materials into other forms such as slate and garnet from shale, graphite from organic matters, marble from limestone. Gold can be also carried from runoff water. Natural geologic processes may affect the primary minerals like weathering or erosion may cause bauxite or aluminium ore to form. Metals like iron and also nickel are formed in laterite ores. Moreover, minerals such as gold and diamonds are also action of geologic processes. Metals such as tin and platinum are also cause by geologic actions (Lacy, 2015).…show more content… A part of a land losses its diversity and biological productivity. It also affects the capability of the land to sustain life of smaller organism. Land desertification was also associated with land degradation. The soil fails to allow nutrient cycling and the habitat quality near mined areas are very low. Anthropogenic activities like mining also hinders the natural buffering capability of soil thus it is more prone to acidification (Cruz-Ruíz et al 2015). Sulphide minerals oxidize when exposed to water and oxygen. It produces sulphuric acid that acidifies land mass and bodies of water. (Chen et al.,