Essay On Drug Metabolism

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Drug metabolism Metabolism which is also known as biotransformation is a chemical change in a compound caused by biochemical reactions to give reaction products called metabolites[1][2][3][4]. Most tissues in the body can metabolize drugs but the major sites of drug metabolism are liver, GItract and lungs[1][2][3][4]. The liver is the predominant organ responsible for metabolism mainly because of the hepatic portal circulation and due to high levels of their metabolizing enzymes. Some drugs also require to be metabolized before they are active and can produce the required therapeutic effect. Such drugs are known as pro drugs[1][2][3]. Biotransformation is vital for two main reasons it. which are to convert the drug into a form that can be readily excreted and to terminate the drug action by inactivating[1][2][3]. The requirements for a drug to be readily excreted are inactive, hydrophilic, ionized metabolite, polar and free[4]. When drugs get absorbed into the circulation, they go to the liver and undergo first pass metabolism. First pass metabolism substantially reduces the concentration or amount of the drug that reaches the site of action or receptors[1][2][3]. To minimize this first pass effect, drugs can be administered by using the sublingual route or the rectal route. There…show more content…
The complete excretion of a drug from the body is known as elimination. When a drug is administered, it undergoes distribution where it produces its pharmacological effect before it is eliminated from the body. Drugs and their metabolites can be removed from the body in the form of expired air, sweat, urine, faeces, bile, saliva and breast milk[1][3][4][5]. The primary organ of excretion is the kidney which eliminates substances in the form of urine although the liver also excrete some drugs in the form of

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