Enzyme Lab

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Every cell contains proteins that make all living things function properly. They are made up of amino acids that determine the shape and the function of proteins. Enzymes are large protein molecules that serve as catalysts. They themselves do not change during the reaction, but speed up or slow down reactions by breaking down a single substrate molecule into smaller ones or joining two or more substrate molecules together. Because of a unique amino acid sequence that forms a unique three-dimensional structure, each enzyme only acts upon a specific substrate during an enzyme catalyzed reaction. Enzymes are associated with both plant and animal metabolism; however, they have a narrow range of conditions that they can operate properly. The enzyme…show more content…
Prepare 30mL of enzyme for each of the beakers labeled with different pH concentration. Add hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide into the 30mL of enzyme until the pH levels are met. Then, measure out 30mL of hydrogen peroxide solution into an identical set of beakers. Using forceps, immerse a 2.1cm filter paper disc into the prepared peroxidase solution for 5 seconds, and then remove the disc and drain for 10 seconds on a paper towel. Put the disc into beaker containing enzyme with the pH of 3. Then, start the timer when the disc hit the bottom of the beaker. When the hydrogen peroxide breaks down by catalase, oxygen is produced and becomes trapped in the fibers of the disc. This causes the disc to float to the surface of the solution. Stop the timer and measure for the amount of time it takes for the disc to float on top of the solution. The rate of the reaction is measured in seconds. Repeat measuring the amount of time for the enzyme activity five times for each enzyme concentration (pH 6 and pH 9). Average the results and record the…show more content…
However, it is shown on the data that the reaction rate in the enzyme with a pH of 9 (0.05 units/sec) was higher than the other two enzymes with a pH of 3 and pH of 9. The data shows that the reaction rate was slower when the pH was lower with the addition of hydrochloric acid, but became faster when more sodium hydroxide was added, making the solution a higher pH. As shown on the data table, the reaction rates of pH 3 for all 5 trials are the same. This indicates that the addition of acid makes the enzyme to denature, thus preventing from functioning properly. The enzyme works most efficiently at the optimum, therefore increasing the reaction rate. The rates will decreases as the pH moves away from the optimum. However, if the pH gets too high or too low, the enzyme will be denatured, which means that the active site will alter, making it unable for the substrate to fit in any more. This will decrease the interactions between active site and substrates, and as the result, the reaction rate will be reduced. The evidence shows that the enzyme activity functions most effectively at the pH that is higher than pH 6. The results support my alternative hypothesis that the rate of the enzyme activity will be higher if the pH is higher than pH 6 than if the pH is lower than pH 6. From the data, it can be concluded that enzyme is ineffective in certain pH (pH 3 in this experiment) because the pH

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