Identification of simple, compound and complex sentences in Punjabi language
Abstract: In this paper we have explored the different types of sentences present in Punjabi language. We have given the details of the structure of these sentence. The work done on the compound and complex sentences in various Indian languages have also been explained.
Introduction: Natural language processing is a very young discipline in Punjabi. Therefore, there is a lack of basic resources and tools for processing the Punjabi language. Sentence Identification is one of the activities performed in a typical word processing application. Sentence Identification means to ensure that a given piece of text follows the grammar rules and structure of specific type…show more content… The sentences are composed of clauses and the simplest form of a sentence has only one independent clause. The structure of Punjabi language’s sentences is SOV (Subject Object Verb) order unlike English that follows SVO order. The subject occurs first followed by the object and then the verb, in Punjabi sentences e.g.
ਮੁੰਡਾ ਸੇਬ ਖਾਂਦਾ ਹੈ।
In the above sentence, ਮੁੰਡਾ muṇḍā ‘boy’ is subject, ਸੇਬ sēb ‘apple’ is object, and ਖਾਂਦਾ ਹੈ khāndā hai ‘eats’ is verb. The nominal phrases behave as subject and object in a clause or sentence, and the verb phrases form the verb part of that clause or sentence. Based on the structure, the sentences can be classified into three categories:
Simple Sentence: A sentence that has only one clause in its structure and that clause is independent clause. E.g. ਮੁੰਡਾ ਗੀਤ ਗਾ ਰਿਹਾ ਹੈ। ਕੁਡ਼ੀ ਹੱਸ ਰਹੀ ਹੈ।
Both of above sentences contains only one independent clause and hence they are simple…show more content… In the sentence 1 these clauses are ਮੀਂਹ ਪੈ ਰਿਹਾ ਸੀ ‘it was raining’ and ਲੋਕ ਭਿੱਜ ਰਹੇ ਸਨ ‘people were getting wet’ both these clauses are joined by a coordinate conjunction ਤੇ ‘and’. Similarly in the sentence 2 the two independent clauses are ਹੁਣ ਮੈਂ ਸ਼ਹਿਰ ਜਾ ਰਹੀ ਹਾਂ and ਤੂੰ ਚਲਾ ਜਾਈਂ connected by ਫੇਰ then.
Complex Sentence: A sentence that has one independent and one or more dependent clauses joined by subordinate conjunctions like ਤਾਂ tāṃ ‘then’, ਜੇ jē ‘if’ etc, e.g. are called complex sentences e.g.:
ਜੇ ਤੂੰ ਸਾਡੇ ਨਾਲ਼ ਜਾਣਾ ਹੈ ਤਾਂ ਆ ਜਾ ।
In above sentence ਜੇ and ਤਾਂ are sub-ordinate conjunctions. They occurs in pair i.e. one part lies at the starting position and the other part lies at the beginning of an independent clause. In above sentence ਜੇ ਤੂੰ ਸਾਡੇ ਨਾਲ਼ ਜਾਣਾ ਹੈ is the dependent clause starting with subordinate conjunction ਜੇ and the other part ਆ ਜਾ is the independent clause joined with dependent clause with the second part of sub-ordinate conjunction (ਜੇ -ਤਾਂ) i.e. ਤਾ