Comparing Stoltenberg And Delworth's Discrimination Model

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As counseling has several theories that lay framework for therapy, so too, does supervision in counseling have similar frameworks: psychotherapy based, developmental and integrated. This paper will focus on the Stoltenberg and Delworth’s model of supervision from developmental theory and Bernard’s Discrimination model from the integrated approach. Though these two models have contrasting characteristics, they also have similarities and combined, offer a thorough assessment and outline for development through application. At the core of both models, and all models really, is the supervisory relationship. Similarly, both models identify areas for growth, with Bernard’s model focusing on process, conceptualization, and personalization and Stoltenberg…show more content…
Motivation is high for the beginner, wavering for the intermediate, and stable at the advanced level. Autonomy is low at the beginner level, with a heavy reliance on the supervisor, but moves towards a dependency-autonomy conflict at the intermediate level, with the supervisee becoming more assertive and independent but at times, still evasive and dependent (Solmonson, 2009). At the advanced level, the supervisee autonomy is high with the supervisee having increased self-efficacy (Solmonson, 2009). Awareness is also low at the beginner level, with the supervisee having limited self-awareness, moving towards more focus on the client and the client’s view and issues at the intermediate level, then having high empathy and understanding and increased awareness on pertinent issues of the client and the therapeutic process at the advanced level (Solmonson, 2009). It is paramount for supervisors to consider the level the supervisee is at and the corresponding areas of focus for evaluation in order to determine the appropriate interventions and…show more content…
A major one is that Stoltenberg and Delworth’s model of supervision relies on the developmental level of the supervisee (beginner, intermediate, or advanced), whereas Bernard’s Discrimination model relies more on the role of the supervisor (teacher, counselor, or consultant), regardless of the level of counselor development. Another difference is that Stoltenberg and Delworth noted the distinction that a supervisee may operate at different levels of development dependent on their experience in different domains of practice (Tracey, 2006); i.e. a counselor may work at an advanced level with a PTSD client but at a beginner level with a client with a substance use disorder. The Discrimination model envelopes Bernard’s view that supervision is an extension of education rather than counseling (Bernard, 1992), which is why the focus is more directed on the roles of the supervisor. Stoltenberg and Delworth placed more emphasis on the role of the supervisee and the eight dimensions of growth for counselor

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