Bureaucratic Caring Research Paper

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Marilyn Ray and Jean Watson’s Theories Compared By Jessica Soler NAU University Nursing Theory and Healthcare Models Abstract Nursing is a intricate profession and is constantly changing for the better. Evidence based practice can bring on some of these changes as well as government mandates. Nursing is challenged with increased patient loads, and new innovations such as computer charting. In nursing, caring, must be a part of our lifestyle in order to be to be an effective nurse. The two theories discussed in this paper are Marilyn Anne Ray’s Theory of Bureaucratic Caring and Jean Watson’s Theory of Human Caring. This paper will interpret these two theories of caring, and then explore both their similarities and…show more content…
This is a question many nurses are faced with daily. Whatever the reason, caring is an important part of nursing that cannot be disregarded. Marilyn Ray and Jean Watson's theories helped transform nursing today and will continue to mold both new and more experienced nurses. The constant change in technology and increased duties in patient care can be quite overwhelming. Caring, as a central concept, has led to the growth of several theories. Marilyn Anne Ray’s Theory of Bureaucratic Caring originated as a grounded theory first , then as a holographic theory, which showed the growth and development of the nature of nursing over time. Watson’ theory of Human Caring shows us that caring is central to the discipline of nursing. This paper will elaborate on Watson’s theory, Ray’s theory and then compare both…show more content…
Watson's is a professor emerita and dean of nursing emerita at the University of Colorado Denver. She received her undergraduate and graduate degrees in nursing and mental health nursing and holds a doctorate in educational psychology and counseling from the University of Colorado at Boulder(Smith and Parker, pg.321). Dr. Jean Watson’s caring theory is well known in nursing, and taught in most nursing school programs. The three major elements of her theory are the carative factors, the transpersonal caring relationship, and the caring occasion/caring moment. The ten caritive factors are Embrace altruistic values and practice loving kindness with self and others; Instill faith and hope and honor others; Be sensitive to self and others by nurturing individual beliefs and practices; develop helping, trusting, caring relationships; promote and accept positive and negative feelings as you authentically listen to another’s story; use creative scientific problem-solving methods for caring decision making; share teaching and learning that addresses the individual needs and comprehension styles; Create a healing environment for the physical and spiritual self which respects human dignity; assist with basic physical, emotional, and spiritual human needs; open to mystery and allow miracles to enter. Jean Watsons Caring Theory is consistent with the wisdom and vision of Florence Nightingale, nursing is a lifetime journey of caring and healing, seeking to understand

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