Bottom-Up Model Of Reading

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The present study is in keeping with the readability tests available online – SMOG, Fry, Flesch, and Gunning-Fog - and the interrelationship between reading theories and readability testing. These formulae have been juxtaposed with reading theories - reading as a psycholinguistic guessing game, top-down and bottom-up, and interactive models of reading, and schema theory, Krashen’s comprehensible input or i + 1 theory - to aid the researcher in giving substance and form to the study. In investigating the readability of the literary texts of Grade 8 English and in designing and developing the proposed scaffold materials to remedy the reading gaps between the stories and the readers, the following topics and sub-topics presented…show more content…
Theories and Disciplines in Reading and Reading Comprehension There are, generally, four accepted theories regarding reading: bottom-up, top-down, interactive, and schema theories. Other books call these theories in reading as models, such that the bottom–up theory is also called bottom-up model. Needless to say, each of the models or theories has its own proponent, and each proponent has its own view about what reading is. Flesch (1955) is identified with the bottom-up model. Goodman (1985) is the proponent of the top-down model. His model for top-down is more popularly called reading as a psycholinguistic guessing game. Rumelhart (1985) is for the interactive model, while Anderson and Pearson stand up for the schema model. Bottom-up Model. In the bottom-up processing, the reader will read all the letters in the word before the meaning of the word is understood and all the words in a phrase or a clause before arriving at its meaning. In other words, the emphasis is on the printed text, rather than what the reader knows before reading. Thus, reading begins from a single part and ends to the whole (Bernardo 2009). Rudolf Flesch is the proponent of this model of…show more content…
He wrote that reading is not just extracting meaning from a text but a process of connecting information in the text which the knowledge the reader brings to the act of reading. Tierney and Pearson (in Pardede, 2015) likewise stated that “reading is a dialogue between the reader and the text which involves an active cognitive process in which the reader’s background knowledge plays a key role in the creation of meaning (p. 3).” Interactive Model. The third theory in reading is the interactive theory which recognizes the interaction between bottom-up and top-down processing simultaneously. One proponent of this model is David Rumelhart. Bernardo (2009) states that print is used as an input whereby meaning is the output. According to Grabe (in Bernardo, 2009), this theory involves the interaction between the reader’s prior knowledge and the knowledge from the text in order to derive meaning. Schema Theory. The fourth theory is the schema theory. It is otherwise known as the Anderson and Pearson Schema-Theoretic View. This theory emphasizes the role of background knowledge or schema and text

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