Alkyl Halides Lab Report

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Introduction: Within this experiment we will determine the reaction rates of six alkyl halides when using two separate mechanisms. These mechanisms are SN1 and SN2 reactivity. To determine SN1 reactivity, silver nitrate within ethanol is used to define the reactions of the six alkyl halides. Lastly, for the SN2 mechanism, sodium iodide within acetone is used as the determining reagent for the alkyl halides. Main Reaction: SN1 Reaction: R-X + AgNO3 R-X-Ag R + (precipitates) R-O-Et R-O-Et + X= Cl, Br SN2 Reaction: R-X + NaI R-I + (precipitate) X= Cl, Br Mechanism: Table of Reagents:…show more content…
Ethanol will need to neutralize the carbocation with the negative charge of the oxygen ion. Once the carbocation is neutralized, then the lone pairs on oxygen ion in ethanol will need to release the hydrogen on the newly formed bond in order to stabilize the stereochemistry of the oxygen ion. For the SN2 reaction mechanism, the Cl ion was able to leave based on its strength as a leaving group. The negative charge from the iodine ion is used to neutralize the carbocation that appears after the leaving group is…show more content…
For SN1 reactions, the order of reactivity is the slowest with a tertiary substrate and the fastest with a methyl substrate. Based on the predicted orders of the alkyl halides for a SN2 reaction, the experimental order did not fit the predicted order perfectly. The only alkyl halide that was correctly modeled in both the predicted and experimental order was the 2-Chlorobutane in an SN1 reaction. The other alkyl halides were slightly off in both the predicted and experimental order; some of the alkyl halides were just a few spaces off from where it was predicted to be in the experimental order. The order could have been manipulated due having to re-do 2-Cholorobutane at a later time for SN2 reactivity, the lack of time provided to complete the lab after an error was corrected and the room temperature within the lab. My experimental order was determined by the rate of color change and the presence of cloudiness during each reaction. If the mixtures’ color changed to a yellowish color and became cloudy, then it was expected that a precipitate would form. Based on these assumptions, the order of reactivity was determined by these factors and the amount of time it took the mixture to

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