Radio-labeling is a technique in radio-pharmacy that deals with the usage and production of radiopharmaceuticals, in which the radionuclide is incorporated with other pharmaceutical substances, biological or non-biological which is used for samples of particles or substances tracking in the various system of the body. The radioactive substances used are relatively small and attached to the non-radioactive elements usually. The radiopharmaceuticals are administered into the body through orally as well as parentally which are done by trained and qualified personnel. The tracking is done by detecting the radioactivity that is emitted due to the decay of the radio-nucleotides.
White blood cells are often radio-labeled to scan and detect any abnormalities such as infection or presence of disease throughout the body. The tagged white blood cells is administered into the body usually through the parentally route, and will be directed to the inflammation sites where the white blood cells will be distributed in the inflammation area, and infection area can…show more content… However there are multiple distinctive methods that can be used to developed a radio-labeled products especially which are incorporated with the white blood cells. Each radio-labeling method also has its own unique advantages and disadvantages. Aside from that, each method also has different mechanism of localization and the efficiency is affected by different factors such as the ph, temperature, incubation time, and also cell concentration. Some methods of radio-labeling that are used are isotope exchange reactions, introduction of a foreign label, labeling with bi-functional chelating agent, biosynthesis, recoil labeling, and also excitation labeling. For white blood cells the radio-labeling can done in-vivo or in-vitro although in-vivo is much safer, and the most common labeling method is by using technetium-99m or