The Nuremberg Tribunal: Crimes Against Humanity

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Although the Nuremberg Tribunal clearly envisioned crimes against humanity as acts committed in the context of World War II, subsequent developments led crimes against humanity to be viewed as independent of the context of interstate warfare. In the early 2000s, crimes against humanity have been prohibited under international law regardless of whether they are committed in an armed conflict or whether they are international or internal in character. Thus, as carried forward in the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (ICC), crimes (such as murder) require no armed conflict but become war crimes when they meet the following two thresholds: First, "the conduct was committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack, directed against

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