Related Literature Review: Shadowing, Fluency And Appression
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Review of the Related Literature
2.1 Introduction In this section, the researcher is going to review the literature related to the variables of the study. It covers three main issues: shadowing, fluency and accuracy.
2.1.1 Shadowing Funayama (cited in Mochizuki, 2006) defines shadowing as the practice of listening and at the same time repeating parrot-fashion each expression as immediately as possible. Tamai (2005) agrees that shadowing is “the act or task of listening in which the learner tracks the heard speech and repeats it as exactly as possible.” Funayama and Tamai make no conditions about the origin of the language input unlike Mochizuki (2006), who specifically states the input is “native spoken language.” Tateuchi clarifies that early research into shadowing was carried out in the field of psychology in the 60s (cited in Mochizuki, 2006). It was used to train interpreters and continues to be used for that purpose. Tanaka (2002) lists shadowing as one of 13 skills used for interpreter exercise, uttering that shadowing is effective in developing a “good ear” for language, specifically in regards to…show more content… In order to recognize the input, the student has to match up the input with formerly stored information in an area of long-term memory called the mental lexicon (like an enormous dictionary of all the words we know). Lachs, Goh, and Pison (1999) summarize research that proves that information held in the mental lexicon can enable the recall of verbal information in the working memory, which in term allows students to recognize the language input. In my own language learning experience the more I practice recognition through the recall of previously learnt language items the easier following memory becomes. This ability to recall language orally has led to smooth oral production of my second