Ming Dynasty Chapter Summary

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From Ming to the Peak of Qing Dynasty (1640 to 1799) When reading chapter 17 from the book, I was interested in the history of the Qing Dynasty of China. By surfing the web from the chapter summary, I knew more about the vicissitude of the early Qing dynasty. The Ming Dynasty, from middle 14th century to early 17, was first established by the emperor Hongwu. During Hongwu’s reign, the Ming Dynasty rapidly recovered the decline in economy and military aspects from Yuan Dynasty ("Ming Dynasty", 2015). Until the early 16th century, the economy of Ming dynasty started to decline. In 1506, the 14 years old Zhengde inherited the rule of the Ming dynasty from his father Hongzhi. During Zhengde’s reign, Zhengde preferred to entertain himself instead…show more content…
It was controlled by Manchus, who used live in the southeast of China. During 1640 to 1642, Hong Taiji led the Qing army attacked the remnant Ming army to get the territory of Songshan and Jinzhou ("Qing Dynasty", 2015). As Qing army success, they got all the territory outside of Shanhai Pass. At the same time, based on the bureaucratic system of Ming Dynasty, Hong Taiji founded a new system of six departments. He also gathered many army counsellors and reinforced the military force. Then he established a military system called “Eight Han Banners”. To expand the rule of northeast of China, Hong Taiji made new laws to protect the farm and livestock. Also, he established many manufactories to produce military supplies, which enhanced the economy of Qing Dynasty at some point. All new policies raised by Hong Taiji provided the backup for capturing the southeast of China and even national unification ("Qing Dynasty",…show more content…
During Kangxi’s reign, the Qing dynasty reached the peak of its political and economic development. By the time emperor Shunzhi died, he appointed four officers to help Kangxi deal with state affairs to avoid the dictatorship like Dorgon. At first, the four officers did not have the power. However Oboi, one of the four officers, gained some political powers by using some tricks, which threatened the political power of Kangxi. Although Oboi was faithful to emperor Kangxi, the political ambition and arrogance of Oboi led to some conflicts with Kangxi. Therefore in 1669, using some tricks, Kangxi caught Oboi and sent him to jail. The victory of catching Oboi showed the talent of 15-year-old Kangxi ("Qing Dynasty", 2015). After officer Soni died in 1667, Kangxi started his own rule. Two eunuchs taught Kangxi Chinese language secretly at the same time. Han Chinese were banned by Manchus, and Manchus did not allowed mixed marriage either. In 1669, Kangxi then eliminate the Oboi clique and make laws to balance the salaries of Han Chinese and Manchus. He also raised the budget of the army, which changed the Oboi’s policies in southeast coast. To ensure the loyalty of three generals in the South, Kangxi emperor gave large amount of money to them every year. After 1671, three generals asked to retire, and Kangxi let them give up their Feudatories. Due to the ambition, General Wu Sangui rebeled and declared

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