2.0 WARFARE SPECTRUMS
2.1 Land Warfare
Land armies are the dominant form of military power almost everywhere. Its main role is to create a political communities whose independent existent depends on their ability to defend themselves against similar group. Only land armies can secure territorial frontiers and have the ability to exercise continuous control over territory that sovereign states are established. Strategically, the biggest advantage of the army is their defensive strength. They are the only forces that have the ability to seize and hold, rather than simply to destroy, their objectives.
The adoption of Manoeuvre Warfare Theory has a dramatic impact on the conduct of conventional war. Richard Simpkin defined manoeuvre warfare as nothing to do with vast numbers of men and machine charging at the countryside but is about amplifying the force which a small mass is capable of exerting. Among the key elements of this theory are surprise, tempo and speed. Two components of manoeuvre theory are holding force which conducts economy of force operations and manoeuvre force to produce the balance of combat power…show more content… His book, The Influence of Sea Power upon History, influenced the US Congress and later President Theodore Roosevelt, to embark on a large naval expansion program and to deploy the navy to demonstrate power to the world. Maritime strategy is defined as a method or the art and science of protecting national interest by means of applying nation’s maritime forces at sea. Sea power is seen as a critical and often dominant element of military conflict. Alfred Thayer Mahan introduced the concept of sea power, based on the idea that the most powerful navy will control the world. Early records of wars such as the Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC) between Athens and Sparta have been seen as a struggle between a sea power and a land