Chapter 1 Outline
A. Criminology is the study of crime and criminal behavior, mainly concentrates on the forms of criminal behavior, the causation and definition of criminality, and the type of reaction society has in relation to such criminal activity. It is concerned with the “analysis of the phenomena of crime and criminality, performing scientifically accurate studies, and developing sound theoretical explanations of crime and criminal behavior (1)”
a. Crime is defined as the act or omission of an act which is in violation of the penal codes without defense or justification sanctioned by the state as a felony or misdemeanor.
b. Difference between criminology and criminal justice
i. Criminology is more concerned with in causal…show more content… Professional Organizations for criminology, and Criminal Justice:
i. The American Society of Criminology ii. The Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences.
i. The Scientific evaluation of physical evidence (1), not to be confused with criminology.
B. Fads and Fashions in Crime
a. Post – civil war gangs of Wild West robbers
i. Doc Holliday, Jesse James, the Daltons, Black Bart, the Younger brothers, and Butch Cassidy
b. Depression era criminals
i. John Dillinger, “Pretty Boy” Floyd, the Barrows, Bonnie Parker, and the Ma Barker gang.
c. Kidnapping has not been as big of a concern in the U.S. today as it was in the thirties.
d. Since the seventies, kidnapping has become a major concern in Italy.
e. J. Paul Getty
i. Grandson was kidnapped, kidnappers mailed one of the grandsons’ ears to a daily newspaper.
f. 1996 Columbia, a kidnapping was reported every 6 hours
g. The U.S. has experiences less than 12 ransom kidnapping per year.
C. The Emergence of Criminology
a. Auguste Comte (1798-1851)
i. French sociologist, proposed three stages in the progression of knowledge
1. Theological/ religious explanation
a. Used supernatural bases for the understanding of reality.
2. Metaphysical (philosophical)