1. What is the principle of polymerase chain reaction?
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a process to amplify the gene once the proper gene of interest has been cut using the restriction enzymes . This is accomplished by specific proteins known as polymerases, enzymes that are able to string together individual DNA building blocks to form long molecular strands. Through this process, multiple copies of the gene of interest can be produced. PCR proceeds in three stages, denaturation, annealing and extension.
2. What is the procedure of PCR ?
The DNA template is heated to 94° C. This breaks the weak hydrogen bonds that hold DNA strands together in a helix, allowing the strands to separate creating single stranded DNA.
2. Annealing…show more content… Applications of PCR.
• PCR is used in analyzing clinical specimens for the presence of infectious agents, including HIV, hepatitis, malaria, anthrax, etc.
• PCR is used in the analysis of mutations that occur in many genetic diseases (e.g. cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anaemia, phenylketonuria, muscular dystrophy).
• PCR is also used in forensics laboratories and is especially useful because only a tiny amount of original DNA is required, for example, sufficient DNA can be obtained from a droplet of blood or a single hair.
• The Human Genome Project (HGP) for determining the sequence of the 3 billion base pairs in the human genome, relied heavily on PCR.
4. Limitations of PCR.
One major drawback of PCR is that a prior information about the target sequence is necessary in order to generate the primers that will allow its selective amplification. Like all enzymes, DNA polymerase are also prone to error, which in turn causes mutations in the PCR fragments that are generated.
5. Ethical issues related to PCR.
Some people consider PCR unethical, because since DNA is produced so quickly and easily, it might be possible for outside sources to obtain a copy of it for their own use without the owner's